Louis de Condé (1530-1569) – Musée protestant

A member of a prestigious dynasty

  • Louis Ier de Condé (1530-1569) © S.H.P.F.
  • Marguerite de Navarre
    Marguerite of Navarre © Société de l’Histoire du Protestantisme Français, Paris

The first Prince of Condé, Louis de Bourbon, was born in Vendôme in 1530. He was the youngest son of Charles IV de Bourbon descending from Louis IX (Saint Louis) and Françoise d’Alençon. Louis de Condé, the brother of Antoine de Bourbon (1518-1562), and the founding father of the Home of Condé was the primary to be referred to as Prince. He was an orphan and he grew up within the care of Marguerite de Navarre, then turned Duke of Nevers.

In 1551 he married Eléonore de Roye, Girl of Conti (1535-1564) and so they had eight kids. In 1565 he married Françoise d’Orlénas Longueville (1549-1601) who gave him three sons.

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His eldest son, Henri 1st of Bourbon (1522-1588) was the protector of the Southern United Provinces.

His debut as a army commander

  • Philip II of Spain (Nameless painting1554)

Between 1552 and 1558, underneath Henri II’s reign, Louis de Condé acquired a strong fame as a army commander. He took half in army motion towards Charles V, then after 1556 towards Spain after Charles V’s abdication in favour of his son Philippe II. Condé successively fought in Piedmont, possession of the Duke of Savoie, then in Lorraine and in Picardie. He most likely transformed to Protestantism at the moment. In 1558 he took half with François de Guise within the retaking of Calais that had been occupied by the English for greater than two centuries.

An ambiguous position within the Conspiracy of Amboise (1560)

  • Catherine de Médicis (1519-1589), reine de France
    Catherine de Médicis (1519-1589), queen of France © SHPF
  • Louis de Bourbon, prince de Condé
    Louis de Bourbon, Prince of Condé

In 1559, upon Henri II’s dying, Catherine di Medici was regent to the younger King Francis II. However he was influenced by the de Guise, uncles of Queen Mary Stuart, whom he married in 1558.

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In March 1560 some Protestants began scheming to kidnap the king. However the plot failed. Louis de Condé, compromised within the scheme, disavowed the conjurers and needed to attend their execution in Amboise.

On the finish of the identical yr Condé was compromised once more, this time in an insurrectional Protestant motion in Bas-Languedoc. He was arrested, and a few say, sentenced to dying. The king’s dying in December saved him. Certainly, Catherine di Medici then regent for king Charles IX wished to do away with the Guise affect to pursue a coverage of appeasement.

The predominant position of Condé in the course of the first Struggle of Faith (1562-1563)

  • Massacre de Wassy (52) le 1er mars 1562
    Bloodbath at Wassy (March 1562) © B.P.U. Genève
  • Bataille de Dreux (1562)
    Battle of Dreux (1562) © S.H.P.F.

In 1562 the bloodbath in Wassy by Duke François de Guise marked the start of the Wars of Faith for the Protestants. Louis de Condé referred to as the Protestants to take up arms and denounced those that disobeyed the edicts of pacification and arguing to ‘shield the king from his entourage whereas he was minor underneath the queen mom’s rule’. He conquered Orleans in April 1562, then Rouen, the second metropolis within the nation. Condé’s Taking of Orléans marked the start of the Wars of Faith for the Catholics.

The battle unfold all through the dominion, primarily in Normandy, within the South-West and South-East of the dominion.

The Royal troops regained the initiative and besieged Rouen, then managed by the Protestants ; In the course of the siege Antoine de Bourbon, Louis’ brother was fatally injured.

The battle in Dreux came about between the troops of Condé and people of the Constable of Montmorency, to the good thing about the Royal troops. Louis de Condé was taken prisoner.

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In February 1563 Duke François de Guise besieged Orléans, managed by the Protestants. He was murdered there.

Louis de Condé was freed due to the Peace of Amboise in 1563 granting the Protestants some non secular tolerance, specifically on 19 March 1563 the edict of pacification of Amboise was negotiated and signed by Condé with the Constable of Montmorency.

A battle for nothing: the second Struggle of Faith (1567-1568)

The rising affect of the Cardinal of Lorraine, and brother of François de Guise, on younger King Charles IX prompted Condé and Coligny to go away the courtroom and take up arms once more as early because the Autumn of 1567. Louis de Condé tried to abduct the king; Charles IX was warned, foiled the try and went again to Paris protected by the Swiss guards. The occasion referred to as the ‘Shock of Meaux’ sparked the second Struggle of Faith.

A number of cities within the South of France had been taken by the Huguenots. In Paris, besieged by the Huguenot military, the Catholics lashed out violently towards the Huguenots.

Condé’s military siezed Saint-Denis in November 1567 after which went on to Dreux. The battle of Saint-Denis, nevertheless, ended to the good thing about the King’s partisans, although the Constable of Montmorency was fatally injured.

After lengthy negotiations the peace was signed on 23 March 1568, the Edict of Longjumeau which confirmed the Edict of Amboise however granted the Protestants just one stronghold: La Rochelle.

The third Struggle of Faith till the dying of Condé (1568-1569)

  • Battle of Jarnac (March thirteenth, 1569) © S.H.P.F.
  • Gaspard de Coligny (1519-1572) © S.H.P.F.

Peace didn’t final because the King revoked the Edict of Longjumeau with the rulings of Saint-Maur in September 1568.

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Louis de Condé withdrew to Burgundy. As he felt threatened by Royal troops he joined Gaspard de Coligny in La Rochelle on 19 September.

On 13 March 1659 in Jarnac (within the Charentes area), the Royal military led by the Duke of Anjou (Henri III to be) gained the struggle towards the Protestants. Condé was injured when he fell off his horse and tried to give up however was executed by an officer of the Duke.

La Maison de Bourbon et les rois de France © Musée virtuel du protestantisme

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