How old is the london underground

London Underground’s historical past dates again to 1863 when the world’s first underground railway, the Metropolitan Railway, opened between Paddington and Farringdon serving six intermediate stations. Since then the Underground community, affectionately nicknamed the Tube by generations of Londoners, has grown to 270 stations and 11 strains stretching deep into the Capital’s suburbs, and past.

The event of London into the preeminent world metropolis throughout the nineteenth, twentieth and twenty first centuries wouldn’t have been doable with out the mobility offered by the Underground.

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Digging down

A lot of the central London community was accomplished within the first 50 years, all by means of non-public growth. On this interval the primary group of routes had been in-built shallow cut-and-cover tunnels alongside present thoroughfares and wanted loads of vents to permit smoke and steam from the engines to flee. Across the flip of the 20th century the event of electrical traction allowed a lot deeper tunnels to penetrate the center of town, resulting in a second wave of development.

Within the subsequent 50 years the main focus turned to extending strains ever additional into London’s suburbs. Certainly, many suburbs had been created by the approaching of the Underground, and had been even developed by the railway corporations themselves, changing into recognized famously as Metroland. In 1933, the assorted non-public corporations working completely different strains had been nationalised and built-in right into a single physique, the London Passenger Transport Board.

New strains

It wasn’t till 1968 that the primary new line throughout central London for greater than 60 years – the Victoria line – opened, adopted in 1979 by the Jubilee line. In 1999 the Jubilee line was prolonged to London’s Docklands, facilitating regeneration and the expansion of the Canary Wharf enterprise district.

In 2003, London Underground grew to become a completely owned subsidiary of TfL. Our complete plan to enhance the Tube has concerned refurbishing tons of of stations, upgrading strains to offer sooner, extra frequent and extra dependable providers, putting in step free entry at many areas, and fully rebuilding some central London stations which have turn into too small to take care of the variety of individuals passing by means of day-after-day.

The additional capability these enhancements are offering is badly wanted. In 2016/17 1.37 billion journeys had been made, over two and a half instances the post-war low of 498 million journeys made in 1982

Bakerloo line

Hearsay has it that the Bakerloo line was created after a gaggle of businessmen complained that they could not get to and from Lord’s Cricket Floor shortly sufficient. The moment success of the road, nevertheless, proved that they weren’t the one ones in want of the service. When it opened on 10 March 1906, greater than 36,000 passengers used it, even if the cricket season had but to start out.

Though it was initially referred to as the Baker Road and Waterloo Railway, the Bakerloo nickname – coined by the Night Information – caught and the identify was formally adopted in July 1906.

Key Bakerloo line dates

  • 1906 – Elephant & Citadel station opens
  • 1915 – The road is prolonged from Baker Road to Queen’s Park
  • 1939 – The Bakerloo line takes over the Stanmore department of the Metropolitan line
  • 1979 – The Jubilee line opens and, after 40 years, the Stanmore department of the Bakerloo line closes
  • 1982 – The 4 peak interval trains between Queen’s Park and Watford Junction are withdrawn
  • 1989 – Providers between Queen’s Park and Harrow & Wealdstone restart

Central Line

The Central Line, initially known as the Central London Railway, opened on 30 July 1900 as a cross-London route from Financial institution to Shepherd’s Bush.

Common from the beginning, a part of its success stemmed from the price: a flat fare of two previous pence to journey. This impressed the press to name it the ‘Tuppenny Tube.’

In 1908, London hosted the Franco-British exhibition, the most important honest of its sort, which attracted 8 million guests. On the time, the exhibition website was little greater than a cluster of white buildings with no official identify however when the Central line prolonged to the location, it formally grew to become referred to as White Metropolis.

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Within the Nineteen Nineties, the Central line was upgraded to computerized operation, making it the second Underground line, after the Victoria line within the Nineteen Sixties, to make use of this know-how.

Key Central line dates

  • 1900 – Central London Railway opens
  • 1908 – The road extends west to Wooden Lane to assist the White Metropolis Exhibition
  • 1912 – The road extends east from Financial institution to Liverpool Road
  • 1920 – The road extends west to Ealing Broadway
  • 1945 – After the warfare, new tracks subsequent to to the principle line railway begin for use. They run from North Acton to West Ruislip and embody new tunnels from Liverpool Road to Leyton
  • 1994 – The Epping to Ongar shuttle service closes, because of low passenger numbers

Circle line

Though the primary round service began in 1884, the Circle line as we all know it did not actually start till the Nineteen Thirties. The ‘Circle line’ identify first appeared on a poster in 1936 however took one other 13 years for it to get its personal, separate line on the Tube map.

The tracks utilized by the Circle line had been run by the Metropolitan Railway and District Railway, two corporations who could not agree on tips on how to run the road. Their variations initially meant that District Railway ran the clockwise trains and Metropolitan Railway, the anti-clockwise trains.

In December 2009, the Circle line was damaged and changed by an end-to-end service between Hammersmith and Edgware Highway, through Aldgate.

Key Circle line dates

  • 1884 – The primary round service begins
  • 1868 – The Paddington to Farringdon (Metropolitan Railway) line extends to South Kensington. The District Railway opens its new line from South Kensington to Westminster on the similar time
  • 1884 – The District Railway line lastly extends to Mark Lane (now Tower Hill). It meets the Metropolitan Railway line to create a full circle
  • 1905 – The road is inspired
  • 1933 – Metropolitan Railway and District Railway turn into a part of the London Passenger Transport Board
  • 1936 – The ‘Circle line’ identify seems on a poster for the primary time
  • 1949 – The Circle line will get its personal line on the Tube map
  • 2009 – The Circle line is damaged and changed by and end-to-end service

District line

The District line first opened on Christmas Eve 1868, between South Kensington and Westminster.

Within the years following, it prolonged each east and west, even going so far as Windsor. In 1883, the road was prolonged from Ealing Broadway to Windsor and has run providers so far as Southend, throughout its time.

Uxbridge and Hounslow had been a part of the District line till they had been transferred to the Piccadilly line in 1933 and 1964.

Key District line dates

  • 1868 – The primary part of what’s now the District line begins. It runs between South Kensington and Westminster
  • 1869 – New tracks open between Gloucester Highway and West Brompton
  • 1874 – The road extends to Hammersmith, Richmond in 1877 and Ealing Broadway in 1879
  • 1885 – The 2-year previous Ealing to Windsor service ends
  • 1884 – The road extends to Mark Lane (now Tower Hill)
  • 1910 – The road extends to Uxbridge, following an earlier extension to Hounslow (in 1884)

Hammersmith & Metropolis line

Supposed as a feeder to the Metropolitan line, with the extension working by means of fields on the fringes of suburbia to Hammersmith, The Hammersmith and Metropolis Railway opened on 13 June 1864. It wasn’t till 1988, nevertheless, that it gained independence to turn into the Hammersmith & Metropolis line in its personal proper.

Collectively run by the Nice Western Railway (GWR) and Metropolitan Railway (MR), when it opened, the one stations on the two-mile lengthy monitor had been Notting Hill (now Ladbroke Grove) and Shepherd’s Bush.

Because the Circle line started working trains on the ‘loop’ in 2009, the Hammersmith & Metropolis line not has any distinctive stations. Each considered one of its 29 stations is shared with one other tube line.

Key Hammersmith & Metropolis line dates

  • 1863 – The Metropolitan Railway opens between Farringdon and Paddington
  • 1864 – Along with Nice Western Railways, Metropolitan Railway extends the road to Hammersmith
  • 1864 – Providers to Addison Highway (now Kensington Olympia), through the curve at Latimer Highway, start. Following bomb harm in 1940, this service is suspended and does not restart after the warfare
  • 1869 – A brand new London and South Western line opens between north of Addison Highway and Richmond, through Ravenscourt Park. The brand new Hammersmith station (at Grove Highway) means the previous terminus is re-sited
  • 1884 – The road extends east to Whitechapel
  • 1906 – The road is inspired
  • 1936 – Trains are prolonged over the previous District Railway line to Barking
  • 1988 – The road turns into the Hammersmith & Metropolis line in its personal proper
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Jubilee line

Though numerous Jubilee line stations are among the many Underground’s latest, the road additionally serves some stations that initially opened over 100 years in the past.

Inaugurated on 1 Might 1979, the Jubilee line linked new tunnels throughout central London (stretching for 4 kilometres between Baker Road and Charing Cross with the previous Bakerloo line department north of Baker Road to Stanmore).

The northern finish of the road had beforehand been a part of the Metropolitan Railway, earlier than transferring to the Bakerloo line in 1939 when a brand new part of dual tube tunnels between Baker Road and Finchley Highway (together with stations at St John’s Wooden and Swiss Cottage) additionally opened.

From 1979 Charing Cross was the road’s southern terminus for twenty years, however additional extension to the Jubilee line was really helpful within the East London Rail Research in 1989 with Royal Assent to the Invoice obtained in March 1992.

Work began on the £3.5bn undertaking to increase the Jubilee line in 1993. The Prime Minister on the time, John Main drove the primary pile of the extension at a start-of-work ceremony at Canary Wharf on 8 December 1993. The extension from Inexperienced Park to Stratford was opened in three phases throughout 1999. The prolonged Jubilee line was lastly joined to the present line on 20 November 1999, though Westminster was the final station on the road to be opened on 22 December 1999.

Since its opening, the Jubilee line extension has facilitated and contributed to the numerous progress of London’s Docklands as a centre for enterprise, residential and leisure exercise.

Metropolitan line

Opened in 1863, The Metropolitan Railway between Paddington and Farringdon was the primary, city, underground railway on the planet. An extension from Baker Road to Swiss Cottage in 1868, nevertheless, put an finish to this declare to fame.

With the expansion of suburban areas within the north west of London, Buckinghamshire, Hertfordshire and Middlesex (dubbed ‘Metroland’), within the twentieth century, Metropolitan Railway noticed a advertising and marketing alternative: by selling dream properties within the countryside, they might additionally spotlight their very own quick, rail providers to get individuals there.

Because the house owners of surplus land, Metropolitan Railway had been ready to department out into actual property, and by 1919 they had been growing housing beneath the identify of Metropolitan Railway Nation Estates Restricted.

Metroland was immortalised within the 1973 BBC TV documentary, narrated by the then Poet Laureate, Sir John Betjeman.

Key Metropolitan line dates

  • 1863 – The road opens between Paddington and Farringdon
  • 1868 – The road extends from Baker Road to Swiss Cottage
  • 1892 – Line extensions reaches Aylesbury
  • 1904 – The Uxbridge department opens
  • 1905 – The primary electrical trains seem and are steadily launched throughout the entire line, other than the road past Rickmansworth
  • 1925 – The Watford department opens
  • 1932 – One other department, to Stanmore opens, however this turns into a part of the Bakerloo line in 1939
  • 1961 – The steam trains working north of Rickmansworth cease as the road is inspired to Amersham and Chesham. Providers past Amersham are taken over by British Rail (now Chiltern Railways)
  • 2012 – A brand new fleet of electrical trains are launched, the primary on the Underground to characteristic air con and full-length, walk-through interiors

Northern line

The Northern line, opened in 1937, was created out of two separate railways: the Metropolis and South London Railway, and the Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway.

It expanded a bit of however WWII slowed the expansions down. Scheduled plans to increase to Mill Hill, Brockley Hill, Elstree and Bushey Heath (referred to as the Northern Heights plan), suffered post-war restrictions and by no means recovered. These plans had been lastly dismissed in 1954.

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Key Northern line dates

  • 1890 – Metropolis & South London Railway opens – it runs from King William Road (close to Financial institution) to Stockwell
  • 1907 – Charing Cross, Euston and Hampstead Railway (Hampstead Railway, because it’s known as) opens. It runs from the Strand (Charing Cross) to Golders Inexperienced, with a department from Camden City to Highgate
  • 1921 – Hampstead Railway extends to Edgware
  • 1922 – Metropolis and South London Railway hyperlinks to the Hampstead Railway at Camden City
  • 1926 – Metropolis and South London/Hampstead Railway extends south to Morden and Kennington
  • 1933 – Metropolis and South London/Hampstead Railway turn into the Northern line
  • 1939 – 1941 The brand new Northern line extends between Archway and East Finchley, Excessive Barnet and Mill Hill East
  • 1975 – The tunnelled hyperlink between Finsbury Park and Moorgate, through Essex Highway, is transferred to British Rail (now First Capital Join)

Piccadilly line

The Piccadilly line opened because the Nice Northern, Piccadilly & Brompton Railway on 15 December 1906 and it ran between Finsbury Park and Hammersmith.

The road remained a lot the identical till the Nineteen Thirties when it expanded quickly, incorporating stations which at the moment are considered basic examples of interval structure. Arnos Grove, Southgate and Sudbury City, for instance, are listed buildings.

The event of Heathrow Airport has additionally been a purpose for enlargement, with Heathrow Terminals 1-5 opening between 1977 and 2008. When Terminal 5 opened in 2008, it grew to become the primary stretch of recent Underground railway in London for the reason that Jubilee line extension in 1999.

Key Piccadilly line dates

  • 1906 – The road opens between Finsbury Park and Hammersmith
  • 1907 – A department line from Holborn to Aldwych opens
  • 1932 to 1933 – The road extends to South Harrow, Arnos Grove, Hounslow West, Uxbridge and Cockfosters
  • 1977 – Heathrow Terminals 1, 2 and three open
  • 1986 – The Heathrow service turns into a loop with the opening of Terminal 4
  • 1994 – The Aldwych department of the Piccadilly line closes down due to too few passengers and excessive prices
  • 2008 – Heathrow Terminal 5 opens

Victoria line

Constructed on the finish of the Nineteen Sixties, the principle purpose of the Victoria line was to attach 4, principal line terminals: Euston, St. Pancras, King’s Cross and Victoria, though its origins return to 1943.

Future hopes for the Victoria line had been included in a doc known as the County of London Plan, however warfare and post-war constraints imply that the plans continued to be placed on maintain.

Parliamentary Powers to construct the road had been obtained in 1955 however difficulties with funding meant that precise development work did not begin till 1962.

The Victoria line opened in phases between 1968 and 1971, and reached areas of north and south London that had by no means had an Underground station earlier than.

The road was the primary computerized passenger railway on the planet, absolutely geared up with an Computerized Practice Operation system (ATO). Such know-how meant that on the contact of a button, the prepare doorways would shut and drive robotically to the subsequent station, guided by coded impulses transmitted by means of the monitor.

The unique 1968 line acquired a whole improve in 2012.

Waterloo & Metropolis line

In 1898, the Waterloo & Metropolis line (or ‘Drain’ because it was recognized), grew to become London’s second, deep-level Tube railway.

Initially, it was promoted by the London and South Western Railway firm, whose trains terminated at Waterloo. The brand new line’s promoting level was that it might provide commuters a direct rail hyperlink to and from the Metropolis of London.

Wood-built trains ran on the road till 1940 however had been changed by specially-designed, Tube-sized vehicles primarily based on the know-how of the Southern Railway’s trains, however these too had been ultimately changed in 1994.

Within the post-war years, the Waterloo & Metropolis line grew to become a part of British Railways nevertheless it transferred to London Underground in 1994, when it grew to become (at the moment), the Underground’s twelfth line.

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